Hawaii Progress Holomua/Hawaii Holomua Progress
The Hawaii Holomua has a complicated publication history. On May 2, 1891, publication of the Hawaii Holomua began in four versions. The first issue of the paper's English-only daily, titled the Hawaii Progress Holomua, was published on September 18, 1893. It replaced the bilingual daily and weekly editions, and was published every afternoon except Sundays and holidays in four to five pages. Each issue contained local news, editorials, advertisements, legal notices, schedules (including mail service, ship arrivals and departures, and sports), and various columns (including personal notes and church services). First appearing nine months after the overthrow of the monarchy, the English edition opposed the Provisional Government, established in 1893 after the overthrow and the Republic of Hawaiʻi, launched in 1894. It was the only paper in Hawaiʻi to publish deposed Queen Liliʻuokalani's protest against the overthrow and her appeal to the U.S. President Grover Cleveland. Edmund Norrie, editor of the English edition, labeled the new regime a "Bogus Hawaiian Republic" and a "fraudulent government." Between 1893 and 1895, due to its fear of opposition papers encouraging a counterrevolution, the Hawaiʻi government created libel laws to discourage papers from "indecent and seditious language" and "conspiracy and restricted freedom of speech. For expressing his views against the government, Norrie was arrested five times and was made to pay a fine of $100 three times. The Hawaii Progress Holomua abruptly ceased publication after its last issue of January 5, 1895. The next day a three-day counterrevolution to restore the Hawaiian monarchy broke out in Hawaiʻi. As a result, the government jailed Norrie and other nationalist journalists. Upon his release, Norrie served as the editor of the Independent from June 1895 to 1902 and continued to support Hawaiian nationalism and to attack the non-Native government of Hawaiʻi.