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Title: Current Knowledge on Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN) and its Causative Betanodaviruses 
Author: Nakai, T.; Sugaya, T.; Nishioka, T.; Mushiake, K.; Yamashita, H.
Date: 2009
Publisher: Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH
Citation: Nakai, T., Sugaya, T., Nishioka, T., Mushiake, K., & Yamashita, H. (2009). Current Knowledge on Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN) and its Causative Betanodaviruses. The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh, 61(3), 198-207.
Abstract: Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) or viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) caused by betanodaviruses (Nodaviridae) has seriously damaged global marine aquaculture since its first appearance in the late 1980s. In the past two decades, more than 100 papers have been published on the dis- ease. Although information is still limited, we now have more knowledge on the taxonomic position and molecular characteristics of betanodaviruses, and on the diagnosis, control, and infection mechanisms of the disease. This paper briefly reviews studies on VNN and betanodaviruses.
Series/Report No.: The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh
Pages/Duration: 10 pages
ISSN: 0792-156X
Keywords: betanodavirus, viral nervous necrosis, viral encephalopathy and retinopathy, control methods, epidemiology, VNN, VER
LC Subject Headings: Fish culture--Israel--Periodicals.
Fish culture--Periodicals.

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