IJA Volume 61, Issue 2, 2009

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    The Effects of Different Sized Granules and Particle Composition on Growth of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) Sonmez, Adem Yavuz ; Hisar, Sükriye Aras ; Hisar, Olcay ; Yanik, Telat ; Aras, M. Sıtkı
    Three feeding regimes were tested to determine their effects on growth, survival, and feed conversion in rainbow trout alevins for 60 days. In the first regime, the alevins were fed a starter feed consisting of 800 micron parti- cles for the first 15-day period. For the following 15-day period, the alevins were given a starter feed consisting of 1200 micron particles. For the final two 15-day periods, the alevins were given feeds consisting of 1500 micron and 2 mm particles, respectively. In the second regime, feed particles in the four periods were 1200 micron, 1500 micron, 2 mm, and 3 mm granules, respectively. In the third regime, feeds contained 1500 micron, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm granules. During the first two 15-day periods, no significant dif- ferences in growth parameters were detected (p>0.05). In the second two 15-day periods, there were significant differences in final live weight, growth, and feed conversion rates between groups (p<0.05). Growth was lowest in the group fed the first regime. There were no significant differ- ences between groups in survival rate (p>0.05).
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    Effects of Replacement of Fishmeal with Hazelnut Meal on Growth Performance, Body Composition, and Nutrient Digestibility Coefficients in Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) Sevgili, Huseyin ; Emre, Yilmaz ; Kanyilmaz, Mahir ; Uysal, Ramazan
    Hazelnut meal was evaluated as an alternative protein source to fishmeal in diets for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (initial wt 57.5±0.1 g). Hazelnut meal was incorporated in the diet at levels of 0% (control), 7.5%, 15%, 22.5%, and 30%. Diets were tested in triplicate for ten weeks. Higher levels of hazelnut meal produced better growth performance, that was sig- nificantly higher in fish fed 30% hazelnut meal than in the control (p<0.05). Feed utilization and protein efficiency ratios followed a similar trend while the level of hazelnut meal did not significantly affect whole body composi- tion. Apparent digestibility of dry matter and energy of fish fed hazelnut meal at all levels was significantly lower than in fish fed the control (p<0.05). Crude and digestible protein, as well as energy retention, were significant- ly correlated with hazelnut meal level. Nevertheless, energy retention declined in fish fed 30% hazelnut meal. Based on growth performance and nutrient retention, the optimal level of hazelnut meal in diets for rainbow trout may be around 30%.
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    Effects of Starter Diets on Pancreatic Enzyme Activity in Juvenile Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) Napora-Rutkowski, Lukasz ; Kamaszewsk, Maciej ; Bielawski, Wieslaw ; Ostaszewska, Teresa ; Wegner, Arieta
    Nine-day-old sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) larvae were reared for 21 days on one of three commercial diets with different protein and fat contents: Bio Kyowa, Aglo Norse, or Perla Larva Proactive. At the end of the experiment, the sterlet juveniles were sampled for histological analysis of the pancreas and evaluation of lipase, trypsin, and amylase activity. Fish fed the Bio Kyowa and Aglo Norse diets were the largest. Survival was highest in the Aglo Norse group. There were no differences between groups in histologi- cal analysis of the pancreas, and no histological anomalies. The highest lipase activity was observed in fish fed the diet with the highest lipid content (21%) - the Aglo Norse diet. Trypsin activity was higher in fish fed Bio Kyowa with a protein content of 55% than in fish fed Aglo Norse with a pro- tein content of 59%.
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    DNA Barcoding of Israeli Indigenous and Introduced Cichlids
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) Shirak, Andrey ; Cohen-Zinder, Miri ; Barroso, Renata M. ; Seroussi, Eyal ; Ron, Micha ; Hulata, Gideon
    The objectives of this study were barcoding and taxonomic analysis of the five tilapiine species (Oreochromis aureus, O. niloticus, O. mossam- bicus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, and Tilapia zillii), two tilapia hybrid strains (Florida red tilapia and Philippine red tilapia), and two endemic wild cichlids (Tristramella simonis and Astatotilapia flaviijosephi) available in Israel, as well as O. urolepis hornorum. Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) 619 bp sequence traces of 104 individuals were assembled, aligned, and compared (GenBank project GI 209553463). The DNA sequences of two hybrid strains were identical to those of O. hornorum and O. aureus. Absence of intra-specific variability was detected in the commercially used species, O. aureus, S. galilaeus, O. mossambicus, and O. urolepis horno- rum. Two DNA sequence variants were detected in O. niloticus originating from Ghana and Egypt. In contrast, 2-3 variants were detected in the DNA of each of the non-commercial species. Amino-acid sequences were identical in all “true tilapias” and different from the sequences in the endemic cichlids. As a whole, the protein phylogenetic tree fitted the expected conventional taxonomy as opposed to the respective DNA-based tree. Sequences FJ348047-FJ348150 were submitted to GenBank via the BOLD database (identical to FISH001-08 - FISH104-08 in this database).
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    Fatty Acid Profile of Spirulina platensis Used as a Food Supplement
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) Diraman, Harun ; Koru, Edis ; Dibeklioglu, Hamdi
    The commercially produced multicellular microalgae, Spirulina platensis, is widely consumed by humans in the Aegean area of Turkey as a food addi- tive or a whole food. The fatty acid profiles of six commercial tablets pro- duced from S. platensis in Turkey and one from China were determined. The samples contained 33.68-66.75% saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 28.20-47.78% polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 and n-6 PUFA). Spirulina platensis is a rich source of gamma linolenic acid (GLA), which accounted for 4.07-22.51% of the fatty acids. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were found in only two samples where they accounted for 1.79 and 7.70%, and 2.28 and 2.88%, respectively. There was a significant (p<0.05) variation among samples in total SFA, monosat- urated fatty acids (MUFA), PUFA, GLA, total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), and ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFA. The S. platensis samples from Turkey were classified by fatty acid profile using two multivariate statistical methods, Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. Clustering produced defined groups according to production site.
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    Improved Induced-Spawning Protocol for the Spotted Rose Snapper (Lutjanus guttatus)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) Ibarra-Castro, L. ; Alvarez-Lajonchere, L.
    An improved protocol for hormonal induction of spawning in spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) resulted in increased spawning efficiency in newly-caught wild breeders and wild-caught adults maintained in captivity for more than a year. A controlled-release delivery system (implant) based on an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVAc) matrix was loaded with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa). The required GnRHa dose was established in two stages. The first stage included meta-analysis of our earlier experiments with wild spawners; the second stage included new experiments with wild and captive breeders. A nomograph was devel- oped to calculate the required GnRHa implant dose, taking into account the origin of the female (wild vs. captive), the initial mean oocyte diameter, and body weight. The effective GnRHa dose was greater in wild than captive females and, in both cases, inversely related to mean oocyte diameter. Using this nomograph, over half the wild females with a mean oocyte diam- eter of ≥425 μm and over half the captive females with a mean oocyte diam- eter of ≥350 μm responded to GnRHa implant treatment (producing multi- ple spawning events in captives), with mean total relative fecundity ranging 80-278 x 103 eggs/kg body weight and 51-85% fertilization success. The nomograph can be used to calculate the GnRHa implant dose required to induce spawning in this species under commercial aquaculture conditions.
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    Protozoan and Metazoan Parasites of Cultured Fish in Turkey and their Applied Treatments
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) Kayis, Sevki ; Ozcelep, Tuna ; Capkin, Erol ; Altinok, Ilhan
    This publication summarizes information on parasites of Turkish fishes from 2003 to 2008. The information is presented as parasite-host lists and con- tains 79 species of parasites, distributed among the higher taxa as follows: Protozoa (14 species), Monogenea (12), Digenea (15), Cestodes (8), Crustacae (1), Isopoda (7), Copepoda (4), Nematoda (8), Bivalvia (1), Acanthocephala (5), Hirudinea (1), and Myxosporean (3). Many records of parasites not identified to the species level are also included. The parasite- host lists are organized on a taxonomic basis and provide information for parasite species found on host species, known geographic distributions in Turkey, and published sources for each host and locality record.
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    Larvae Development Stages of the European Flat Oyster (Ostrea edulis)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) Acarli, Sefa ; Lok, Aynur
    This paper reports on the larvae development of the flat oyster, Ostrea edulis (Linnaeus, 1758), from veliger to pediveliger stage. Adult oysters were induced to spawn by thermal stimulation and large amounts of veliger larvae were obtained for study. Veliger larvae were cultured in 180-l bins at a den- sity of 3 larvae/ml. Larvae, reared at 20±2°C and fed 8-200 x 103 cells/ml of Isochrysis galbana, reached pediveliger larvae in 17 days. Shell length and width at the beginning of the pediveliger stage were 254 and 233 μm, respec- tively. Survival rate from veliger to viable pediveliger stage was 15.5%.