IJA Volume 61, Issue 4, 2009

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    Optimal Dose of Total Residual Oxidants for Hybrid Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus) and Whiteleg Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Ozone-Treated Sea Water
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) Lee, Hung-Tsai ; Lee, Hung-Jen ; Wang, Jih-Temg ; Leu, Ming-Yih ; Meng, Pei-Jie
    The purpose of this study was to use total residual oxidants (TRO) as an indicator for determining the optimal ozone dosage needed to control water quality and thereby enhance survival of cultivated aquatic organisms. When the TRO concentration was maintained at 0.16 mg/l for two hours, the total bacteria plate count dropped from 7.7 x 103 CFU/ml in the untreated sea water to less than 10 CFU/ml in the ozone-treated sea water. The TRO con- centration in the ozone-treated water was well below the 96-h LC50 for hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) determined in this study. Hence, adjust- ment of the ozone concentration in aquacultural sea water is a viable option that simultaneously kills the majority of harmful bacteria in the water and enhances survival of cultivated aquatic organisms.
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    Changes in Copper Content of Allogynogenetic Silver Crucian Carp after Application of Copper Sulfate to Fishponds
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) Liu, Jinlan ; Yang, Guang
    Copper sulfate was applied to freshwater fishponds containing allogyno- genetic silver crucian carp and changes in the copper content in fish tissues were measured. The copper content in blood, gill, amd liver went up quick- ly, but remained high for a relatively short time. Twenty-four hours after application, the copper content in the gill and liver reached their highest lev- els, 4.846 mg/kg and 6.624 mg/kg, respectively. The copper content in the blood reached its maximum of 22.125 mg/l three days after application. The copper content in the kidney also reached its maximum, 17.472 mg/kg, on day 3 but the high copper content prevailed until the end of the 20-day observation. The copper content in the muscle reached its maximum, 1.873 mg/kg, on day 7 and its minimum, 0.6 mg/kg, after two weeks.
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    Evaluation of the New Fluorescent Internal Tag (Soft Visible Implant Alphanumeric Tag) in the Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) Pillai, Bindu R. ; Sahoo, Lopamudra ; Mahapatra, Kanta Das ; Ponzoni, Raul ; Sahu, Sovan ; Mohanty, Swagatika ; Vijaykumar ; Sahu, Swagatika
    The new version of the polyester visible implant alphanumeric tag (VI Alpha tag; Northwest Marine Technology Inc., Shaw Island, Washington, USA) was evaluated in the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under laboratory conditions. The new VI Alpha tag is soft and fluorescent with an alphanumeric code designed to identify individual specimens. Two tag sizes - standard (1.0 x 2.5 mm) and large (1.5 x 3.5 mm) - were tested on juve- niles (standard size), subadults (standard size), and adults (large size) for 10 weeks. Retention, readability, and effects on growth and survival were evaluated. Final mean tag retention was 71.25±3.3% in juvenile prawns, 91.3%±2.73 in subadult prawns, and 59.0%±1.65 in adult prawns. Final tag readability was 100.0% in juveniles, 88.6±5.3 in subadults, and 77.8±4.8 in adults. Average daily growth (mg/day) and SGR (%/day) of tagged juvenile prawns (22.4±0.23 and 0.81±0.02, respectively) did not significantly differ (p>0.05) from that of the untagged control (20.5±1.47 and 0.83±0.04). Similar results were observed in subadult and adult M. rosenbergii. Mean final survival did not significantly differ (p>0.05) between tagged and untagged prawns. Results indicate that tagging M. rosenbergii with VI Alpha tags has no adverse effect on survival or growth and can therefore be effec- tively used to identify individuals in selective breeding programs.
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    Bacteria in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Southern Black Sea Region of Turkey - A Survey
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) Kayis, Sevki ; Capkin, Erol ; Altinok, IIhan
    Thirty-two freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms, two rain- bow trout marine cages, and one research station in the Black Sea region of Turkey were surveyed for bacterial pathogens and diseases in 2006- 2008. Forty bacterial isolates were phenotypically identified in 558 fish. Yersiniosis, furunculosis, vibriosis, motile Aeromonas septicemia, bacterial cold water disease, and Pseudomonas infection were recorded. Infections caused by Yersinia ruckeri, A. hydrophila, and A. salmonicida occurred most frequently, but one or two outbreaks of P. putida, Flavobacterium psy- chrophilum, and P. luteola infection were also recorded. Most of the bacte- ria were isolated in spring and summer rather than fall and winter. Susceptibility to antibiotics was fairly consistent regardless of geographic area or year of isolation. Fifty percent or more of the bacteria were resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, neomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetra- cycline, and O/129. The most effective antibiotics were oxolinic acid and flo- refenicol.
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    Interaction of Spirulina with Different Levels of Vitamin E on Growth, Reproduction, and Coloration in Goldfish (Carassius auratus)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) James, Raja ; Vasudhevan, Iyyadurai ; Sampath, Kunchitam
    The interaction between spirulina (30 g/kg diet) and different levels of vita- min E (100, 200, 300, and 600 mg/kg diet) on growth, gonad weight, repro- duction, and coloration were studied in goldfish, Carassius auratus, for 120 days. The mean body weight increased with time in all experimental diets. Growth, gonad weight, and fecundity in fish fed the diet containing spiruli- na+300 mg vitamin E were significantly (p<0.01) enhanced, compared to other diets. Supplementation of vitamin E beyond this level significantly (p<0.01) reduced gonad weight and, subsequently, fecundity. Control fish spawned only once, with fewer eggs per spawn, than other groups, which spawned twice with a greater number of eggs per spawn. Females fed spir- ulina without vitamin E laid 703 eggs in two spawnings compared to 1057 eggs in fish fed with the spirulina+300 mg vitamin E diet. Fish treated with other combinations laid fewer eggs. While all combinations of spirulina and vitamin E significantly enhanced coloration, the combination of spiruli- na+300 mg vitamin E was the most influential.
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    Effects of Selenium on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Shrimp, Neocaridina heteropoda
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) Wang, Hong-Wei ; Cal, Duan-Bo ; Xiao, Guo-Hua ; Zhao, Chun-Long ; Wang, Zi-Hui ; Xu, Hai-Ming ; Guan, Yue-Qiang
    The effects of a selenium-supplemented diet on the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in muscles of the shrimp, Neocaridina heteropoda, were investigated. Purified diets with six levels (0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.75 μg/g) of supplemental Se were fed to N. heteropoda for three months. CAT and GPX activity was determined after one month and SOD activity was determined every month. The activity of the enzymes was dose dependant; activity of all three enzymes was significantly higher in shrimp fed Se-sup- plemented diets than in those fed the unsupplemented control diet. SOD activity significantly rose and fell during the three months and was higher in the second month than in the first or third. For all three enzymes, antioxi- dant activity reached a maximum when the Se concentration was 0.45 μg/g.
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    Evaluation of Feed Stimulants in Diets for Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) Chatzifotis, Stavros ; Arias, Marta Vazquez ; Papadakis, Ioannis E. ; Divanach, Pascal
    Six isoprotein and isolipidic diets were formulated to investigate the effect of dietary additives on growth and feed efficiency of sea bream (Sparus aura- ta) fry fed a fishmeal-based diet for 80 days. The additives (protorsan, hydrolyzed fish protein, squid meal, krill meal, and betaine + inosine-5’- monophosphate) were added to the diets at the expense of fishmeal. The specific growth rates of the fish ranged from 2.17-2.18% per day for the pro- torsan and control groups to 2.42% per day for the group fed the squid addi- tive. Significant differences (p<0.05) in final body weight and specific growth rate were detected only between the protorsan and control groups and the squid additive group. The feed conversion ratio ranged from 1.04 in the group fed hydrolyzed fish protein group to 1.24 in the group fed krill with no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between treatments. The feed stimulating action of taurine was tested by observation. Pellets coated in a taurine solution were more actively consumed than control pellets during the morning feeding but consumption did not differ during the afternoon feeding.
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    Effects of Seminal Plasma Composition on Sperm Motility in Mirror Carp (Cyprinus carpio)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2009) Bozkurt, Yusuf ; Ogretmen, Faith ; Secer, Faik Sertel ; Ercin, Ugur
    This research provides data concerning the biochemical (ionic and organic) composition of sperm of the mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its relation- ship to spermatozoa motility. Seminal plasma contained 67.12±1.06 mM/l Na+, 105.1±2.24 mM/l K+, 7.85±0.67 mg/dl Ca2+, 2.61±0.11 mEq/l Mg2+, 0.14±0.002 g/dl total protein, 10.3±1.01 mg/dl triglyceride, 6.83±0.72 mg/dl cholesterol, and 54.72±3.49 mg/dl urea. A positive relationship (p<0.05) was determined between Na+ and motility (r = 0.522). On the other hand, Ca2+, K+, and Mg2+ ions negatively correlated (p>0.05) with motility (r = -0.565, r = -0.160, and r = -0.184, respectively). Spermatozoa motility correlated negatively (p>0.05) with protein (r = -0.233), triglyceride (r = -0.348), and urea (r = -0.331) but positively with cholesterol (r = 0.012). This information will help to develop cryopreservation procedures, to meet species-specific extender requirements, and to optimize artificial fertilization procedures in mirror carp.