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In 1895 two daily newspapers titled Independent appeared in Honolulu. The second, edited by Edmund Norrie, began nine days after the final issue of the earlier Independent [LCCN: sn 84020096] which had been edited by Daniel Logan. In the first issue on June 24, 1895, editor Edmund Norrie assured readers
"The INDEPENDENT is in no way connected with the defunct paper of the same name which was recently started and a few weeks ago gobbled up by the Evening Bulletin."
Norrie's paper provided news of all of the Hawaiian Islands and from the rest of the world, numerous ads, and editorial comment in 4-6 pages published daily except Sunday. Its estimated circulation was 3,000.

Supportive of those seeking to restore the Hawaiian monarchy, which had been overthrown in 1893, Edmund Norrie opposed the non-Hawaiian governments of Hawai'i. In 1893 a provisional government had been established under Sanford Ballard Dole, in 1894 the Republic was established with Dole as president, and in 1898 the United States annexed Hawai'i. Norrie was among the editors and printers of various opposition Hawaiian and English newspapers, including Daniel Logan of the other Independent, who were prosecuted and imprisoned for libel and conspiracy by the non-Hawaiian government. A native of Denmark, Norrie also edited English sections of several Hawaiian language newspapers -- Hawaii Holomua and Ka Makaainana, both nationalistic pro-Hawaiian papers. Norrie persevered in his criticism of the non-Hawaiian government, and in the Feb. 3, 1899 issue referred to Mr. Sanford Ballard Dole as "at one time a president of the bogus Hawaiian Republic." A recurring ad declared:
The Independent is true to its name, and is all that that name implies. It upholds the Right and is Fearless Against All Comers. Nor is it pledged to any party, sect or faction. Its Expressions are Outspoken without fear or favor. Subscription Only Fifty Cents a Month Delivered Free

Editor Norrie continued his crusading journalism in support of Hawaiian nationalism until 1902 when he ceased editorship. From 1902 until 1905 there is no editor listed on the newspaper issues. The Independent's close ties with the Hawaiian nationalist press is seen in the role of F. J. Testa, publisher and editor of the Hawaiian language daily Ka Makaainana (for which Norrie edited the English-language section), and a fellow prisoner of the non-Hawaiian government, who is listed as manager of the Independent from 1895, and as proprietor and publisher from January 1897. Testa continued in this role until the Independent ceased publication on October 1, 1905.


To download high quality JPEG2000 images of the newspaper pages, go to the Library of Congress Chronicling America website []