IJA Volume 62, Issue 2, 2010

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Item
    Identification  and  Antimicrobial  Activity  of  Combined  Extract  from  Azadirachta  indica  and  Ocimum  sanctum
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2010) Harikrishnan, Ramasamy ; Kim, Man-Chul ; Kim, Ju-Sang ; Balasundaram, Chellam ; Jawahar, Sundaram ; Heo, Moon-Soo
    The  chemical  constituents  of  decoction  (individual)  and  concoction  (mixed)   of   ethanolic   leaf   extracts   from   Azadirachta   indica   (neem)   and   Ocimum   sanctum   (tulsi)   were   analyzed   by   gas   chromatography-­mass   spectro-­ photometery  (GC-­MS).  Decoctions  of  A.  indica  and  O.  sanctum  had  24  and   33   constituents,   respectively.   Mixed   together,   26   compounds   were   identified.   Four   major   (high   percentage)   compounds   were   identified   in   A.   indica:   n-­hexadecanoic   acid   (14.34%),   phytol   (19.96%),   9,12,15-­octa-­ decatrienoic   acid,   (Z,Z,Z)-­   (18.57%),   and   vitamin   E   (11.37%).   Three   major  compounds  were  identified  in  O.  sanctum:  phenol,2-­methoxy-­3-­(2-­ propenyl)   (15.32%),   9,12,15-­octadecatrienoic   acid,(Z,Z,Z)-­   (16.94%),   and  9,12,15-­octadecatrienoic  acid,  methyl  ester,(Z,Z,Z)-­  (22.05%).  Three   major   compounds   were   identified   in   the   mixed   extract:   n-­hexadecanoic   acid  (16.58%),  phenol,2-­methoxy-­3-­(2-­propenyl)  (20.62%),  and  9,12,15-­ octadecatrienoic   acid,(Z,Z,Z)   (25.98%).   Four   of   the   compounds   in   the   mixed   extract   were   new:   eudesma-­4(14),11-­diene   (0.18%),   6-­ azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane   (0.51%),   cyclohexane,1-­ethyl-­1-­methyl-­2,4-­ bis(1-­methylenyl)-­,[1S-­␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣-­␣-­Elemen   (0.77%),   and   globulol   (1.45%).   The   mixed   extract   had   a   high   level   of   antimicrobial   activity   against   fish   pathogens   as   indicated   by   zone   of   inhibition,   minimum   inhibitory  concentration,  and  minimum  bactericidal  concentration.
  • Item
    Culturing Seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in Illuminated Cages with Supplementary Acetes Feeding
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2010) Garcia, Luis Maria B. ; Hilomen-Garcia, Grace V. ; Calibara, Ralph Laurence M.
    Juvenile Hippocampus barbouri were grown in illuminated cages with or without supplemental daytime feeding of thawed Acetes (a planktonic marine crustacean), or in non-illuminated cages with Acetes feeding, as a supplement to light-attracted zooplankton prey. After ten weeks, seahorses in illuminated cages fed Acetes had the highest mean body weight (2.24 g) and length (8.20 cm), but these did not significantly differ from seahorses in unfed illuminated cages (1.88 g; 7.25 cm), which did not significantly differ from those in fed non-illuminated cages (0.88 g; 6.32 cm). In all treatments, the mean instantaneous growth rate in body weight declined progressively throughout the test but the instantaneous growth rate in stretched length did not vary. Mean survival (76-100%) of seahorses in fed non-illuminated cages and in unfed illuminated cages did not vary significantly over the test period. The mean survival of seahorses in fed illuminated cages was lowest (54%), but did not significantly differ from the other treatments. Juvenile H. barbouri grown in illuminated cages had better growth than those in non-illuminated cages, but survival was reduced when seahorses in illuminated cages were fed Acetes.
  • Item
    Effect of Low Salinity on Yolk Sac Absorption and Alevin Wet Weight of Rainbow Trout Larvae (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2010) Başçınar, Nadir
    Growth, yolk sac absorption, and maximum wet weight of alevin rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocked in fresh water (0 salinity), water with 4‰ salinity, or water with 8‰ salinity were determined. Larvae were sampled on the 329th degree-day when 50% of the eggs hatched, and on degree-days 361, 396, 432, 467, 496, 528, 557, and 584. Sampled larvae were anesthetized in benzocaine solution (20 mg/l) and preserved in 10% formaldehyde. At hatching, mean length was 14.25±0.63 mm and total wet weight was 58.16±9.98 mg. Larvae reached the swim-up stage at 96.94±8.71 mg on the 28th day in fresh water, at 120.29±9.26 mg on 19th day in 4‰ salinity, and at 102.80±5.88 mg on 22nd day in 8‰ salinity. The total length and dry weight of the larvae at the swim-up stage differed significantly among treatments (p<0.001). There was a significant relationship between larvae dry weight and degree-day. The best growth, yolk sac consumption, and alevin wet weight were obtained in 4‰ salinity.
  • Item
    Genetics Features of Natural and Cultured Populations of Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) Revealed by RAPD Markers
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2010) Liu, Yun-Guo ; Gao, Huan ; Liu, Chun-Ying ; Li, Fang-Zheng ; Chen, Song-Lin
    Randomly amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) was used to evaluate genetic diversity in natural and cultured populations of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Two hundred genotypes from four natural populations (Laizhou, Weihai, Qingdao, Rizhao) and one cultured population (Mingbo) were screened with 18 RAPD primers. Of 101 loci in the five populations, 43.33%, 47.52%, 45.83%, 44.57%, and 42.86%, respectively, were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic loci detected by a single primer combination ranged 1-4. Average heterozygosity was 0.0735, 0.0893, 0.0871, 0.0847, and 0.0685, respectively. Weihai had greater genetic diversity than the other populations (p<0.05) including number of RAPD bands, number of polymorphic bands, average heterozygosity, and number of genotypes. Mingbo had the least genetic viability. Intentional or accidental release of cultured half-smooth tongue sole into natural sea areas may disrupt local gene pools and result in loss of genetic variability. Genetic variability of cultured populations should be monitored to conserve natural half-smooth tongue sole resources.
  • Item
    Soybeans Heat-Treated by Different Methods in Diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus) Fry
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2010) Vartak, Vivek Rohidas ; Singh, Ravendra Kumar
    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of diets supplemented with soybean meal processed by different heat treatments on growth, survival, and body composition of goldfish (Carassius auratus) fry. The fry (5.25±0.27 cm) were fed isonitrogenous (40%) diets containing soybean meal for 60 days. The first treatment contained soybeans toasted in a pan for 10 min. The second and third treatments contained soybeans oven- heated for 30 and 60 min, respectively. The fourth treatment contained raw soybeans. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in survival between treatments. There was a significant increase in specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, and food conversion ratio with the diet containing soybeans oven-heated for 60 min. No significant differences were detected in body composition among the four treatments.
  • Item
    Effects of Dietary Manganese Supplementation on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Shrimp (Neocaridina heteropoda)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2010) Wang, Hong-Wei ; Cai, Duan-Bo ; Zhao, Chun-Long ; Xiao, Guo-Hua ; Wang, Zi-Hui ; Xu, Hai-Ming ; Yang, Li-Kun ; Ma, Liang ; Ma, Jin-Liang
    The effects of the manganese (Mn) supplemented diets on the level of superoxide anions (O-2) in the hemolymph, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the muscle of Neocaridina heteropoda were investigated. Manganese sulfate (MnSO4) was added to a basal diet at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100 μg/g. Diets were fed to triplicate groups of shrimp (0.30±0.11 g, 1.4±0.1 cm) in a recirculating freshwater rearing system for 30 days. The Mn concentration in the rearing water, monitored during feeding, was 1.00±0.02 μg/l. O-2 was lower and antioxidant enzyme activity was higher (p<0.05) in shrimps fed Mn-supplemented diets than in shrimps fed the control. Antioxidant enzyme activity reached a maximum when the Mn concentration was 60 μg/g diet.