IJA Volume 60, Issue 1, 2008

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    Effects of Betaine Supplementation in Plant Protein Based Diets on Feed Intake and Growth Performance in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Tiril, Serap Ustaoglu ; Alagil, Fikret ; Yagci, Feraye Berkay ; Aral, Orhan
    The effects of betaine supplementation on feed intake and growth performance in rainbow trout fed a plant-protein based diet were evaluated. Triplicate groups of rainbow trout (130 g) were fed the plant-protein basal diet, the basal diet with 1.5% betaine supplementation, or a fishmeal-based diet (control) for 80 days. Feed intake was significantly better (p<0.05) in fish fed the betaine-sup- plemented diet (161.2 g/fish) than in fish fed the basal diet (131.6 g/fish) and not significantly dif- ferent from fish fed the control (152.8 g/fish). Weight gain was significantly higher (p<0.05) in fish fed the betaine-supplemented diet (117.0%) than in fish fed the basal diet (95.9%). Results indi- cate that, in diets based on plant proteins that often have low palatability, betaine supplementation may improve feed acceptability and growth performance in rainbow trout.
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    Reproductive Characteristics and Egg Development in Flounder (Pleuronectes flesus luscus) in the Southern Black Sea
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Sahin, Temel ; Gunes, Ardinc ; Aydin, IIhan ; Polat, Mamza
    Spawning time, total fecundity, egg size, fertilization and hatching rates, and egg development of the flounder, Pleuronectes flesus luscus, were investigated in six wild female broodstock (mean wt 394.4±226.8 g). Spawning lasted 33 days from December 29 to January 30. Mean total fecundity was 171.4±109 x 103 eggs per female. Newly ovulated eggs were spherical and buoyant, with a diameter of 1.075-1.213 mm (avg 1.156±0.025 mm), a colorless transparent chorion, a slightly yellowish unsegmented yolk, and a narrow perivitelline space, without an oil globule. Fertilization and hatching rates were 17.2±15.7% and 51.5±27.6%, respectively. Hatching occurred after 117 h of incubation at 9.8-11oC. There were variations in egg size between batches, with the size tending to decrease during the spawning season (p<0.05).
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    Effects of a Glucan from the Edible Mushroom (Pleurotus florida) as an Immunostimulant in Farmed Indian Major Carp (Catla catla)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Kamilya, Dibyedu ; Joardar, Siddhartha N. ; Mal, Bimal C. ; Maiti, Tapas K.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a dietary mushroom glucan on the non- specific immune responses and disease resistance of the Indian major carp, Catla catla. Glucan was extracted from farm-raised edible mushrooms (Pleurotus florida). The glucan was fed to test animals for two weeks at 0.5 g or 1 g/kg feed. Afterward, the fish received the control diet for another four weeks. Non-specific immune responses were measured at the end of the two-week experimental feeding (week 0), two weeks later (week 2), and four weeks later (week 4). Control and test fish were challenged by intraperitoneal injection of the fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila, seven days after the two-week experimental feeding period. Mortality was observed and the relative percent survival was calculated. In the 0.5 g treatment, significant enhancement (p<0.05) in superoxide anion production was observed at weeks 0 and 2. In the 1 g treatment, activity was enhanced only at week 2. Both concentrations significantly increased phagocytosis at weeks 0 and 2 and bactericidal activity at weeks 2 and 4 (p<0.05). Alternative complement pathway activity was unaltered by either treatment (p>0.05), but lysozyme activity was raised at weeks 2 and 4 in the 0.5 g treatment and at week 2 in the 1 g treatment. Both con- centrations significantly enhanced relative percent survival.
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    Impact of Marine Secondary Metabolites (MSM) from Hypnea musciformis as an Immunostimulant on Hemogram Count and Vibrio alginolyticus Infection in the Prawn, Penaeus monodon, at Different Salinities
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Jean José, J. ; Lipton, A.P. ; Subhash, S.K.
    Marine secondary metabolites (MSM) from Hypnea musciformis positively affected immune fac- tors in post larvae of the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Shrimp were raised in one of three salinity levels and infected with one of three doses of virulent Vibrio alginolyticus. When challenged with 105 of 106 V. alginolyticus cells/ml, survival was 100% for both control shrimp and shrimp fed a commercial shrimp feed treated with the MSM extract, regardless of salinity. But, when chal- lenged with 107 V. alginolyticus cells/ml, survival was 0 in control shrimp at all salinities, and 0, 34%, and 15% in shrimp fed treated feed and raised in 7, 17, and 27 ppt salinity, respectively.
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    Isolation and Characterization of Bacteria Associated with Cultured Penaeus monodon Affected by Loose Shell Syndrome
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Jayasree, L. ; Janakiram, P. ; Madhavi, R.
    Seventy shrimps affected by loose shell syndrome (LSS), a major disease causing mass mor- talities in shrimp farms in north coastal Andhra Pradesh (India), were subjected to bacteriologi- cal analysis. Total bacteria and vibrio counts in the hemolymph were estimated; bacteria were isolated and identified; their pathogenicity and drug sensitivity were studied. Total bacteria ranged 1.28 x 102 to 5.8 x 105 cfu/ml while Vibrio ranged 0.7 x 102 to 2.1 x 105 cfu/ml. Six species of Vibrio were isolated from the hemolymph including V. harveyi, V. alginolyticus, V. para- haemolyticus, V. anguillarum, V. splendidus, and V. vulnificus. Vibrio harveyi was the most dom- inant with a prevalence of 100%. It was also the most virulent with a low LC50 value of 1 x 103 cfu/g. Histopathological study revealed changes typical of bacterial septicemia including invasion of bacteria into the hemolymph, formation of granulomas in the hepatopancreas and other organs, and extensive proliferation of connective tissue and necrosis of the hepatopancreas, gills, and ovarian tissues. Sensitivity to 22 antibiotics was tested. Most of the bacterial isolates were highly sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin while V. harveyi was resistant to as many as 16 antibiotic drugs including chloramphenicol.
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    Effects of Lecithin on Cholesterol Digestibility in the Prawn, Artemesia longinaris (Crustacea, Penaeidae)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Haran, Nora S. ; Fenucci, Jorge L.
    Cholesterol and dietary phospholipids are important to the growth and survival of crustaceans. Soy lecithin enhances cholesterol solubilization while phosphatidylcholine transfers cholesterol from the hepatopancreas to the hemolymph. To study the influence of dietary lecithin on digestibility and transport of cholesterol to the hemolymph in Artemesia longinaris, diets with dif- ferent levels of supplemental cholesterol (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) and soy lecithin (0, 0.5, 1, and 2%) were fed to prawns for two weeks. The diet containing the lowest level of cholesterol (0.5% ) and lecithin (1%) resulted in the lowest apparent digestibility of cholesterol. The diets containing 2% cholesterol and 1% or 2% lecithin resulted in the highest hemolymph cholesterol contents. There was a linear relationship (r = 0.832; p<0.01) between hemolymph cholesterol and the amount of lecithin in the diet. There were no significant differences between treatments in cholesterol con- tents in the hepatopancreas. In a second 6-week experiment, diets containing 1.5% cholesterol significantly improved weight gains, regardless of the lecithin content. Survival rates did not dif- fer among treatments. Hence, the efficacy of cholesterol does not seem to be related to dietary inclusion of lecithin.
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    Prymnesium parvum, an Ichthyotoxic Alga in an Ornamental Fish Farm in Southern Israel
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Gordon, Nurit ; Colorni, Angelo
    The haptophyte alga Prymnesium parvum (Prymnesiophyceae) caused “creeping” mortality in ornamental fish, molly (Poecilia sp.) and koi (Japanese carp, Cyprinus carpio), farmed in the Arava Valley in southern Israel. The toxicosis occurred when the water system was changed from flow-through to closed circulation. A moderately high temperature, three-fold increase of salinity, and probable rise in eutrophication created conditions suitable to P. parvum blooms. The system was treated with 10 ppm ammonium sulfate and fish mortality ceased.
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    Incorporation of Soybean Meal and Hazelnut Meal in Diets for Black Sea Turbot (Scophthalmus maeoticus)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Ergün, Sebahattin ; Yigit, Murat ; Türker, Ali ; Harmantepe, Burcu
    The effects of soybean and hazelnut meals as partial replacements of fishmeal were studied in Black Sea turbot (Scophthalmus maeoticus). Juvenile fish (mean 26 g) were fed six isoenergetic (19.1±0.18 kJ/g diet) and isonitrogenous (511±0.48 g protein/kg diet) diets for 60 days. The con- trol diet contained fishmeal as the sole protein source. In two of the six experimental diets, soy- bean meal replaced 20% and 35% of the fishmeal. The other three diets contained 65% fishmeal plus soybean and hazelnut meal at ratios of 25/10, 15/20, 5/30. There was no significant differ- ence (p<0.05) in growth performance between the groups fed the diet containing 20% soybean meal and those fed the control diet. Fish fed the 10% or 20% hazelnut meal diets had similar results as fish fed the diet containing 35% soybean meal. Growth performance, feed utilization, protein efficiency, and nitrogen retention were significantly lower in the group fed the 30% hazel- nut diet. Total nitrogen excretion and retention were similar in all groups except the 30% hazel- nut group. Results indicate that soybean meal can replace up to 20% of the fishmeal without causing reduction in growth performance, nutrient utilization, or nitrogen retention and that hazel- nut meal can be incorporated with 20%, but not 35%, soybean meal at a level of no more than 20% of the diet.
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    Alterations in Hematological Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Exposed to DDVP
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Atamanalp, Muhammed ; Angis, Simay ; Oguzhan, Pinar ; Aksakal, Ecrument
    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a sublethal dose (1.6 mg/l) of DDVP (dichlor- vos) on hematological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after 28 days of exposure. The DDVP caused increases in the red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin, ery- throcyte sedimentation rate, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin con- centration (MCHC). On the other hand, it decreased thrombocyte (Plt), hematocrit (packed cell volume), and mean corpuscular volume. The only statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed fish were in white blood cell count and MCHC.