IJA Volume 60, Issue 3, 2008

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    Partial Replacement of Fishmeal with Hazelnut Meal in Diets for Juvenile Gilthead Sea bream (Sparus aurata)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Emre, Yilmaz ; Sevgili, Huseyin ; Sanil, Murat
    Hazelnut meal was evaluated as an alternative protein source to fishmeal in diets of gilthead sea bream with an initial weight of 35.08±0.29 g. Incorporation levels of hazelnut meal were 0% (con- trol), 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%. Each diet was tested in triplicate for ten weeks. There were no significant differences between the experimental diets and the control in final body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, or feed and protein efficiency ratios. In addition, the level of hazelnut meal did not significantly affect the whole body composition of the sea bream. In con- clusion, up to 40% hazelnut meal could be included in diets for gilthead sea bream juveniles with- out adverse effects on growth rate or body composition.
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    Survival and Growth of Captive Reared Juvenile Seahorse (Hippocampus kuda) Fed Live Feeds and Fishmeal
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Thangaraj, M. ; Lipton, A.P.
    Pond and aquarium keeping of seahorse (Hippocampus kuda) is challenging because of their feeding habits. Although seahorse is a purely active predator, we successfully raised laboratory- produced young on inert feed and evaluated the effects of readily-available cost-effective food items on their growth and survival. Two-month old laboratory bred juveniles were fed live Artemia, live Mysids, minced fishmeal, or a combination of Artemia and Mysids (1:1). Juveniles fed the combination diet reached the highest wet weight (1.93±0.31g), specific growth rate (2.21±0.07), and survival (96±3.0%), significantly (p<0.05) higher than juveniles fed fishmeal (1.42±0.12 g, 2.08±0.03, and 76±3.0%, respectively). Although there were insignificant differences in growth and survival between juveniles fed the combination and those fed Mysids or Artemia, the combi- nation diet was best. This easily available feed can be used in ornamental aquaria.
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    Antibacterial Activity of Marine Sponge Extracts against Fish Pathogenic Bacteria
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Annie Selva Sonia, G. ; Lipton, A.P. ; Paul Raj, R.
    Secondary metabolites of the marine sponges Acanthella elongata, Axinella donnani, Callyspongia diffusa, Callyspongia subarmigera, and Echinodictyum gorgonoides were collect- ed from fishing nets and their in vitro antibacterial properties against eight virulent marine fish pathogens were studied at incubation temperatures of 20°C and 30°C. Crude methanol extracts of the tested sponges showed species-specific antibacterial activity. The most active species was A. elongata which inhibited 100% and 87.5% of the tested bacterial isolates at 20°C and 30°C, respectively. Callyspongia subarmigera was the least active as it inhibited only 62.5% and 50% of the tested bacteria at those temperatures. Results suggest that fractionation and purifi- cation of the crude methanol extract of A. elongata has potential in the development of novel antibiotic substances for managing common bacterial diseases in aquaculture.
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    Growth Performance, Survival, and Body Composition of Post Larvae of the Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Fed Graded L-Carnitine Diets
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Singh, R.K. ; Desai, A.S. ; Chavan, S.L. ; Khandagale, P.A.
    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of L-carnitine incorporated diets on growth, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion efficiency (FCE), protein efficiency ratio (PER), sur- vival, and body composition of post larvae of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Five diets containing 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, or 1 g L-carnitine/kg diet were fed to post larvae (0.105±0.028 g, 2.21±0.13 cm) for thirteen weeks. The highest SGR (3.42±0.44%/day), FCE (40.40±1.45%), and PER (1.05±0.02) were obtained in the 0.50 treatment. The lipid level in the post larvae was inversely related to the L-carnitine level in the diet (p<0.05). The protein level increased with supplementation until the 0.50 level, then decreased with higher levels. Using second-order polynomial regression analysis, the optimal weight gain, SGR, and FCE were obtained with L-carnitine levels of 0.484 g/kg, 0.466 g/kg, and 0.48 g/kg, respectively. In con- clusion, 0.50 g L-carnitine per kg feed is optimum for good growth in M. rosenbergii post larvae.
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    Effect of Temperature on Growth and Biochemical Composition (Sterols, α-tocopherol, Carotenoids, Fatty Acid Profiles) of the Microalga, Isochrysis galbana
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Durmaz, Y. ; Donato, M. ; Monterio, M. ; Gouveia, L. ; Nunes, M.L. ; Gama Pereira, T. ; Gokpinar, S. ; Bandarra, N.M.
    The microalga Isochrysis galbana Parke was grown in 100-l polyethylene bags filled with steril- ized seawater enriched with Wallerstein and Miquel nutrient medium (3:1) at two temperatures (18°C and 26°C), 2.5% salinity, and continuous illumination. Samples of microalgae were exam- ined during the exponential growth, stationary growth, and decay phases (days 18, 35, and 58, respectively). Stigmasterol constituted the main sterol group in all phases in both treatments, except during the exponential growth phase at 18°C. The highest concentration of α-tocopherol was 5.22 mg/100 g DW, reached in the decay phase of algae raised in 18°C. Likewise, the high- est total carotenoid (4.14 mg/g DW) and chlorophyll (2.87 mg/g DW) levels were obtained in algae raised in 18°C, during the exponential phase; the main pigments were chlorophyll a, c1, c2, and fucoxanthin. At 18°C, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were the predominant fatty acid group, reaching 37.93% of the total fatty acids in the stationary phase. At 26oC, saturated fatty acids (SAF) were the predominant group of fatty acids. The present study suggests that the nutritional value (gross biochemical composition and fatty acid profile) of I. galbana Parke is, to a large extent, determined by the temperature at which it is grown and the harvest time.
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    Cryopreservation of Pike Perch Sperm in Hatchery Conditions
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Bokor, Zoltan ; Horvath, Akos ; Horvath, Laszio ; Urbany, Bela
    Experiments were carried out on pike perch (Sander lucioperca L.) to find a method for stripping sperm without contamination by urine, to determine sperm concentration, and to fertilize large batches of eggs with cryopreserved sperm. Induced spawning technology for pike perch, an important predator fish species in Hungarian and central-eastern European pond aquaculture, has been developed only recently. Sperm cryopreservation can be an important tool for several reasons including the simplification of hatchery work and long-term preservation of genomes of males with high genetic value. In the present study, sperm was stripped without urine contami- nation, improving sperm quality, and large amounts of eggs were fertilized using 0.25 ml sperm, resulting in hatching percentages of 55±3% for 30-g batches of eggs and 87% for a 50-g batch.
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    Partial Replacement of Fishmeal by Defatted Soybean Meal in Diets for Black Sea Turbot (Psetta maeotica): Growth and Nutrient Utilization in Winter
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2008) Ergun, Sabahattin ; Yigit, Murat ; Türker, Ali ; Harmantepe, Burcu
    The objective of the present study was to evaluate replacement of white fishmeal by soybean meal in practical diets for Black Sea turbot (Psetta maeotica) at levels of 0, 10%, and 20%. The diets were fed to triplicate groups of juvenile Black Sea turbot (initial body weight 18 g) for 60 days. At the end of the trial, there were no differences in growth performance, feed utilization, and nitrogen retention between the control group fed 100% fishmeal and the experimental groups fed 10% or 20% soybean meal. In conclusion, 20% inclusion of soybean meal can allow reduction of white fishmeal by up to 14%, leading to savings on fishmeal protein.