IJA Volume 58, Issue 3, 2006

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    Effects of stocking densities on growth of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in earthen ponds
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2006) Mena-Herrera, Alfredo ; Gutierrez-Corona, Claudia ; Linan-Cabello, Marco ; Sumano-Lopez, Hector
    The effects of stocking density and physicochemical water characteristics on the growth, sur- vival, and production of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were assessed in six 500±72.5 m2 earthen ponds during two culture seasons: autumn-winter (20 weeks) and spring- summer (14 weeks). Stocking densities were 50, 60, and 70 shrimp/m2. Water turnover was approximately 15% per day. Aeration was supplied by a 3.5 hp air blower. Mean growth during the autumn-winter did not differ significantly among the stocking densities with final weights of 12.77, 12.72, and 12.40 g and yields of 3,609, 5,093, and 5,618 kg/ha at 50, 60, and 70 shrimp/m2, respectively. In contrast, there were statistically significant differences in mean growth and final yields during the spring-summer. Final mean weights were 18.63, 13.46, and 11.86 g and yields were 7,243, 7,307, and 8,011 kg/ha at 50, 60, and 70 shrimp/m2, respective- ly. Low water temperatures during the winter affected production. Better performance was recorded at higher spring-summer temperatures (≥23°C). Larger shrimp were associated with lower stocking density while higher stocking density produced slightly higher yields. For best per- formance, dissolved oxygen should be maintained above 4 mg/l.
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    Application of streptomyces as a probiotic in the laboratory culture of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2006) Das, Surajit ; Lyla, P.S. ; Ajmal Khan, S.
    Probiotic supplementation of live microorganisms in aquaculture aids in preventing disease, thereby increasing production and decreasing economic loss. In the present study, Streptomyces cells were incorporated in Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) laboratory culture for 25 days. Streptomyces was inoculated into the feed in different concentrations (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 g/kg feed) on days 1, 10, and 20. Growth was monitored on days 5, 15, and 25. Experimental culture tanks provided with Streptomyces had better water quality parameters than the control tank. At the cell concentration of 10 g, the pH was 7.9, ammonia 0.00067 ppm, nitrate 0.00285 ppm, phosphate 0.00224 ppm, silicate 0.00836 ppm, total heterotrophic bacteria 3.279 x 105 CFU/ml, and total Vibrio 0.2 x 102 CFU/ml. Growth increased as the Streptomyces cell con- centration increased. At 10 g concentration, growth in length and weight was 15.79% and 57.97%, respectively, and the interval between molts was 12.5 days.
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    Effects of energetic diets on growth, blood chemistry, and liver pathology of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2006) Yilmaz, Erdal ; Akyurt, Ihsan ; Mutlu, Ekrem
    The effects of isonitrogenous diets (350 g crude protein/kg diet) with different energy levels (10.85, 11.82, 12.73, 13.69, and 15.06 MJ dietary energy/kg feed) on growth, feed utilization, blood chemistry, and liver histopathology of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, were investigat- ed to determine the optimum diet for this species. The diet containing 12.73 MJ digestible ener- gy/kg feed resulted in the best growth, blood parameters, and liver histology. Fish that consumed the 10.85 and 11.82 diets had similar weight gains, feed, and protein utilization as fish fed diets containing 13.69 or 15.06 MJ (p>0.05) but fish fed diets containing 13.69 or 15.06 MJ/kg had signs of hepatic lipidosis.
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    Growth enhancement and survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae fed Artemia nauplii enriched with cod liver oil and/or Lactobacillus
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2006) Babitha Rani, A.M. ; Reddy, A.K. ; Sahu, N.P.
    A 60-day experiment was conducted to study the single and combined effects of feeding Artemia nauplii enriched with an emulsion containing cod liver oil and/or a probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus sporogenes) on the growth and survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae. Artemia enriched with the emulsion (with and without probiotic enrichment) and tissue of M. rosenbergii fed such Artemia had significantly higher (p<0.05) HUFA (20:5 n-3, 22:6 n-3) con- tents than unenriched Artemia or Artemia enriched with the probiotic only. The first postlarvae appeared 7-8 days earlier and 95% of the postlarvae 11-12 days earlier in the emulsion-enriched groups than in the control or probiotic-only groups. Growth in the probiotic-only group did not sig- nificantly differ (p>0.05) from the control. Feeding probiotic-treated Artemia reduced pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio sp. and Pseudomonas sp.) in the gut microflora. The highest survival was recorded in the group fed Artemia nauplii enriched with both the probiotic bacteria and the cod liver oil emulsion.
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    Effects of partial replacement of fishmeal with isolated soy protein on digestibility and growth performance in sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2006) Ustaoglu, S. ; Renner, B.
    Fishmeal was partially replaced by isolated soy protein in diets for sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) juveniles at an amount at which one-half or one-third of the protein was supplied by soy. Nutrient digestibility, growth, and whole body composition were determined after 79 days. Protein digestibility was significantly higher in the diet in which half the protein derived from isolated soy protein (84.9%) than in the diet in which one-third of the protein derived from soy (82.6%). Otherwise, digestibility, growth, feed efficiency, and whole body composition did not differ between the two diets.
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    Effects of Short and Long Exposure to the Anesthetic 2-Phenoxyethanol Mixed with Ethyl Alcohol on Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) Fingerlings
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2006) Altun, Tülay ; Danabas, Durali
    Common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; 7.70±0.4 g; 8.38±0.8 cm) were exposed to different concentrations of 2-phenoxyethanol mixed with pure ethyl alcohol (1:1) in an open sys- tem for a short (until induction of anesthesia) or long (48 h) duration, then transferred to clean water and maintained for 96 h. The effects of the anesthetic on induction time, anesthetic stage, opercular rate, recovery time, recovery stage, and mortality were observed. For short exposure, the most suitable concentrations were 0.8, 1, and 1.2 ml/l. For long exposure, transportation, and deep sedation and partial loss of equilibrium (anesthetic stages 2 and 3), the preferable con- centrations were 0. 4 and 0.6 ml/l. No mortality was observed at any concentration.
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    Efficacy and toxicity of orally administrated anti-coccidial drug treatment on Enteromyxum leei infections in sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo C.)
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2006) Golomazou, E. ; Athanassopoulou, F. ; Karagouni, E. ; Vagianou, S. ; Tsantilas, H.
    Three drugs effective against myxosporeans and commonly used to treat spore-forming para- sites were tested in sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo) infected by Enteromyxum leei. Two medicated diets were applied, one containing salinomycin and amprolium and the second containing fumagillin. Compared to untreated fish, both treatments resulted in significant reduc- tions in prevalence, intensity of all developmental myxosporean stages, and mortality. The effect was more prominent with the salinomycin and amprolium combination, where the significant reductions in intensity, prevalence, and mortality were unaccompanied by any histopathological evidence of toxic side effects or growth reduction. Sporoblasts and mature spores with distorted structures were observed in both drug treatments, but were more prevalent in the salinomycin and amprolium treatment than in the fumagillin treatment, indicating direct effectiveness on the parasite. Salinomycin with amprolium is a promising treatment for myxosporean infections in intensively cultured warmwater fish, leading to parasite elimination.
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    Ozone action on survival and storage life of live and chilled tilapia
    (Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - BAMIGDEH, 2006) Glatman, L. ; Sachs, O. ; Khanin, Y. ; Drabkin, V. ; Gelman, A.
    The effects of applying ozone treatment to live pond-raised tilapia on the survival of live fish and length of storage of chilled fish were evaluated according to sensory, chemical, physical, and bacteriological tests. Long-term low-level ozonation extended survival and improved the physi- cal state of live fish in a tank and may be feasible for use in fish markets to improve commercial quality of live fish. Ozone treatment of tilapia while still alive prolonged their storage life as chilled tilapia by 12 days (40%) and improved their quality when stored at 0°C but had little effect at 5°C. The improvement probably resulted from an initial reduction and prevention of growth of spoilage bacteria such as Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, and Aeromonas sobria. At 0°C, P. fluorescens was most sensitive to ozone, while Brevundimonas diminuta and Pseudomonas putida were not. The combination of ozone pretreatment and storage at 0°C appears to be a feasible means of prolonging the storage life of chilled tilapia.