Miscellaneous Private Sector Reports

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    Water and gas chemistry from HGP-A geothermal well : January 1980 flow test
    (Geothermal Resources Council, 1980-09) Thomas, Donald M.
    During January 1980, a two-week production test was conducted on the geothermal well HGP-A. Brine chemistry indicates that approximately six percent of the well fluids are presently derived from seawater and that this fraction will probably increase during continued production. Reservoir production is indicated to be from two chemically distinct aquifers: one having relatively high salinity and low production and the other having lower salinity and producing the bulk of the discharge.
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    Hydrothermal alteration of basalts from Hawaii Geothermal Project Well-A, Kilauea, Hawaii
    (Geology Journal, 1978-07) Stone, Claudia ; Fan, Pow-foong
    Mineralogical examination of basaltic rocks obtained during drilling of a successful 1,962-m-deep geothermal well (HGP-A) in the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, reveals three zones of hydrothermal alteration beneath a zone of unaltered lavas. Each alteration zone is characterized by the dominance of a particular mineral: zone 1, montmorillonite; zone 2, chlorite; zone 3, actinolite. Three zones of relative permeability can be tentatively identified on the basis of filled versus partly filled vesicles and fractures. Because the well has not returned to thermal equilibrium as of this writing, stability relations between secondary minerals and temperatures cannot be calculated with accuracy. However, the latest downhole temperatures measured at the boundaries of alteration zones, compared with similar data from high temperature geothermal areas in Iceland, indicate that HGP-A temperatures are considerably higher than those encountered for the same alteration-zone boundaries in Icelandic wells. This indicates that the present-day thermal regime in HGP-A is relatively young and that the hydrothermal minerals probably have not reached equilibrium with existing conditions.
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    HGP-A reservoir engineering
    (College of Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1978-09) Yuen, Paul C. ; Chen, Bill H. ; Kihara, Deane H. ; Seki, Arthur S. ; Takahashi, Patrick K.
    The Hawaii Geothermal Project well HGP-A has undergone a two-year testing pr.ogram which included cold water pumpdown tests, flashing flows with measurements of temperature and pressure profiles, and noise surveys. These tests and the data obtained are discussed in detail. While the pumpdown tests conducted right after the slotted liner had been installed and the mud removed indicated that the well had very poor permeability, HGP-A was flashed successfully on July 2, 1976. Maximum quiescent bottomhole temperature following that initial flash was measured to be 358°C. Comparison of subsequent discharges shows that with each succeeding test, the flow rate has increased, possibly due to the displacement of drilling mud embedded in the wellbore surface. The flow rates range from a maximum of 101 Klb/hr at wellhead pressure of 51 psig to a throttled 76 Klb/hr at 375 psig wellhead pressure, with possible electrical power production of 3.0 to 3.5 MWe. Temperature and pressure profiles taken during flow tests indicate that the fluid in the we1lbore is a mixture of liquid and vapor at saturation conditions. The absence of a liquid level during flashing discharge confirms that flashing is occurring in the formation. Pressure drawdown and buildup analyses yield a value of transmissibility (kh) of approximately 1000 millidarcy-feet with a pressure drop across the apparently damaged skin of 500-600 psi. The pressure profiles taken during flashing flow consist roughly of three approximately constant gradient lines that intersect at the junction of the casing and the slotted liner, and at approximately 4300 feet depth, which leads to the conclusion that the major production zones are near bottomhole and in the vicinity of 4300 feet. Furthermore, the data points on the log-log Horner type plot seem to fallon two different but consecutive straight-line approximations. This could be interpreted to be the result of two different production layers with different kh values.
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    KS-14 Puna Geothermal Venture : flawless execution of aerated mud drilling with mud motor in hostile environment
    (African Rift Geothermal Conference, 2012-11) Rickard, Bill ; Samuel, Abraham ; Lee, Chris ; Spielman, Paul ; Cuadros, Ivan ; Long, Justin ; Robert, Earl
    The PUNA Geothermal Venture (PGV) wells are located on the Big Island of Hawaii near the Kilauea Volcano. This results in a highly fractured, hard, hot formation, challenging PGV with lost circulation, hole-cleaning, cooling and stuck pipe issues. With static formation temperatures of 600°F the traditional fluid system incorporates water-based mud, various cooling systems to maintain operation temperature limits < 300°F, micronized cellulose for lost circulation and mud-pulse measurement while drilling. Although aerated mud is the preferred drilling fluid for operations performed in areas prone to lost circulation, there are certainly drawbacks and considerations to running aerated fluids. PGV along with its contractors managed to complete the 26” hole section flawlessly on aerated mud, which has not been part of the standard program.
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    Self-potential survey -- Southeast coast area, Hawaii County on state lands
    (Micro Geophysics Corporation, 1979)
    From April 5 to May 22, 1978, Microgeophysics Corporation conducted a self-potential passive-electrical survey (SP) for Atlantic Richfield Company in the area of the east and southwest rifts of Kilauea Volcano. SP Traverses were planned and conducted by a two-member crew. The traverses were closed loops of several kilometers. All equipment and supplies were carried by hand when vehicle use was not possible. A discussion of the equipment is contained in the Instrumental Appendix. The data-collection procedure was as follows: The leading crew member was responsible for navigating the traverse and selecting the electrode placement. Beg inning at a selected point, the trailing crew member placed his electrode and waited until the leading crew member pulled the 100 meter wire full length along the traverse. The trailing crew member held the wire end securely to indicate to the leading member that he had gone 100 meters along the traverse. The leading man then selected an electrode placement, marked the spot with bright yarn and waited for the trailing crew member to take the voltage reading, record it and signal that the data for that station was acquired. The leading man then picked up his electrode, moved along the traverse until the trailing crew member arrived at the point the leading man had just left. Using this procedure, 80 to 110 stations at 100 meter intervals were occupied per day along roads. In the Puna Forest Preserve many stations required over an hour to move the 100 meters. Therefore, the average production was about 10 to 12 stations per day.
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    Passive seismic survey -- North coast area, Hawaii County on state lands
    (Micro Geophysics Corporation, 1978)
    A roving, passive seismic survey was conducted in the area from east of Mauna Kea northwest through Kohala during the period of April 5 to May 22, 1978, by Microgeophysics Corporation for Atlantic Richfield Company. Six to ten microearthquake recording stations were operational on anyone day. A nominal nine-station array was modified at a rate of two to three stations per day, until all stations in the survey had been occupied. Each station was therefore typically occupied for three to four days. Some stations were moved after only one recording day in order to increase the instrument gain and reduce the noise level. Station locations were determined by considerations of specific array geometry, access and coverage of the survey area. Appendix I is a listing of the stations on state land, dates of their operation and the number of records obtained from each. A base map showing all locations on state land is in the pocket. Copies of the smoked-paper seismograms obtained at these stations, presented separately, are arranged in packets on a station-by-station basis. Each station packet consists of an identifying cover sheet and the seismogram copies arranged chronologically by Julian Day. No digital tape records were made.
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    Annotated bibliography : hydrogeology of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii
    (U.S. Geological Survey, 1993) Ingebritsen, Steven E. ; Scholl, Martha A.
    "Prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy"
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    Geothermal energy on the Big Island
    (Stanford University, 2017-12-15) Enriques, Evan
    Sections: Introduction, What is Geothermal Energy?, How Does Hawaii Benefit from Geothermal Energy?, and Conclusion.
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    Blind geothermal system exploration in active volcanic environments; multi-phase geophysical and geochemical surveys in overt and subtle volcanic systems, Hawaii and Maui
    (Ormat Technologies Inc., 2010-05-19) Martini, Brigette
    This project targets a ‘blind’ volcanic system on the southwest flank of Maui, Hawai’i –unconventional due to volcanic dormancy and lack of surface thermal manifestation. Assessing unconventional targets requires re-tooling the standard geothermal exploration kit and adding in new tools. Our research will do the following: • Provide a benchmark for exploration of other ‘blind’, dormant volcanic systems • Validate gravimetry and aeromagnetics for geothermal exploration in young, basaltic volcanic environments • Demonstrate use of CO2, isotope analysis and hyperspectral imaging in young, hot-spot volcanic systems for geothermal exploration • Provide baseload energy for Maui island.
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    Workshop on magma/hydrothermal drilling and instrumentation
    (Sandia Laboratories, 1978-06) Varnado, Samuel G. ; Colp, John L.
    This report summarizes the discussions, conclusions, and recommendations of the Magma/Hydrothermal Drilling and Instrumentation Workshop, which was held in Albuquerque, NM, May 31-June 2, 1978. The purpose of the workshop was to define potential drilling environments and to assess the present state-of-the-art in drilling and instrumentation technology for a drill hole that would penetrate through deep hydrothermal systems and into a magma body. This effort is envisioned as a portion of a larger program of continental drilling for scientific purposes, which has been proposed by the U.S. Geodynamics Committee of the National Academy of Sciences. For the purposes of the workshop, three working groups were organized as follows: Drilling Location and Environment, Drilling and Completion Technology, and Loging and Instrumentation Technology.