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ItemAncestral Oceanic Society and the Origins of the Hawaiians( 06/01/94 12:00 AM)In Evolution ofthe Polynesian Chiefdoms, Patrick Kirch (1984) discussed Ancestral Polynesian Society, reconstructed from linguistics, archaeology, and comparative ethnography. This is seen as the baseline from which the Hawaiian and other contemporary Polynesian societies originated and from which they have been transformed over time (Kirch and Green 1987). Ancestral Polynesian Society did not of course appear out of nothing, its own origins were in the Lapita Culture which can be traced back to the Bismarck Archipelago to the immediate east of the Island of New Guinea. l The question of ultimate Lapita origins is a more controversial one and will not be pursued in detail in this paper (but see Allen and White 1989, Gosden et al. 1989; Spriggs 1989). Instead, the nature of early Lapita culture in the Bismarcks will be examined as the culture directly ancestral to Ancestral Polynesian Society. This examination seems worth attempting for several reasons
ItemAboriginal Hawaiian Structural Remains and Settlement Patterns in the Upland Agricultural Zone at Lapakahi, Island of Hawai'i( 06/01/94 12:00 AM)Over the last two decades archaeologists in Hawai'i have begun intensive investigations into the nature and patterns of aboriginal Hawaiian settlement and agricultural adaptations to the varied environmental settings of the Hawaiian Islands. Prior to 1968, Hawaiian archaeology was essentially descriptive in approach, with an overwhelming emphasis upon extensive site survey and the study of such specialized topics as heiau (aboriginal ceremonial sites) and petroglyphs (Newman 1968). The very few attempts at synthesis or interpretation dealt almost entirely with aspects of aboriginal marine resource exploitation. Perhaps the only archaeological attempt during this period to investigate aspects of an Hawaiian agricultural adaptation was Pearson's study of irrigated taro cultivation in Hanapepe Valley, Kaua'i (Pearson 1962, n.d.).
ItemArchaeological Monitoring and Historic Preservation( 06/01/94 12:00 AM)Archaeological monitoring has become an integral part of cultural resources management in the United States over the last decade. We have no hard figures on the subject, although if our experience with monitoring in Hawai'i is indicative of the situation in many states-and there is reason to believe that this is generally the case-then monitoring is indeed a significant element in the practice of modern American archaeology. In Hawai'i alone each of the four major archaeological contracting or consulting firms in the state typically will do four to eight monitoring projects per year. 1 Although some of these projects may involve only a day or two of field work, others may require up to several months of daily observation at a construction site. Clearly then, a lot of archaeological field time and funds are spent in the pursuit of this activity. What is surprising is that as far as I am aware, there has been no real discussion by archaeologists of what monitoring is, its appropriateness for CRM, and its limitations. Because many believe that there are serious problems in the way monitoring is employed, the following discussion, based on experience in Hawai'i, is offered in an attempt to clarify the nature of monitoring and its limitations for CRM.
ItemFront matter and Editorial( 06/01/94 12:00 AM)Archaeological research on prehistoric and historic Hawai'i proceeds at a rapid, even accelerating pace. Despite global recession, development throughout the islands continues to generate a substantial amount of archaeological field work, reporting of primary data, and areal syntheses. Other research, in dependent of contract archaeology, also appears to be increasing. Public organizations involved in ar chaeological research, such as the University of Hawai'i, the State Historic Preservation Division, and the Bishop Museum (now designated the State Museum of Natural and Cultural History), now employ more professional, Ph.D. and M.A. level archaeologists than ever before. Undergraduate and graduate stu dent enrolment in archaeology at the University of Hawai'i has also grown significantly in recent years. Recent publications reflect not only this growth, but also the prominence of Hawaiian archaeology to a national and international audience (e.g., recent issues of Asian Perspectives and recent symposia at na tional and international meetings).