JPAR Volume 1, 2023

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    Front Matter
    ( 2023-12-30) Mulrooney, Mara ; Swift, Jillian
    Cover, Masthead, TOC
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    Editorial
    ( 2023-12-30) Mulrooney, Mara ; Swift, Jillian
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    Archaeological Approaches for Understanding the Marquesan Stone Pounder ke’a tuki popoi
    ( 2023-12-30) Richards, Michelle J.
    Stone pounders known as ke’a tuki popoi, ke’a tu’i kioe, or k’ea tuki kóna, were and are still used on certain Polynesian Islands to mash food, usually fruit, especially breadfruit, to make a paste known as poi, and some were used to produce medicine and pigments. They were the second most frequently collected stone objects in Polynesia after adzes in the colonial period and are numerous in global museum collections. Yet, pounders have not received as much archaeological attention. Stone pounders provide a way of studying the colonial period and the impacts of colonialism on the production and circulation of traditional Polynesian objects by comparing them with adzes from earlier and more recent (pre-Contact to early colonial) periods. This study combines an object itineraries and portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) geochemical study to an assemblage of Marquesan pounders in museum collections to (1) identify stylistic change through time, (2) identify volcanic rock type and match geological sources used to make these artifacts, and (3) consider the impacts of Western colonialism on Marquesan cultural practices. The results of these analyses identified that the distinct Tiki-headed ke’a tuki popoi were produced from a localized region in the Marquesas and that pounders were not produced from the same basalt quarries as adzes. The patterns of stone pounder production and distribution identified in this geochemical study contrast somewhat with the historical accounts from the 19th and 20th centuries and therefore provide a new perspective into Marquesan stone carving practices just prior to and during the early Western colonial period.
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    Report on Midden Exposed by Coastal Erosion in Lapakahi State Historical Park, North Kohala District, Hawai‘i Island
    ( 2023-12-30) McCoy, Mark D. ; Tam-Sing, Tracy ; Yent, Martha ; Horsburgh, K. Ann
    Climate change is impacting coastal sites at an alarming rate.We report on coastal midden exposed by storm damage in the archaeological interpretive area of Lapakahi State Historical Park, North Kohala District, Hawai‘i Island, specifically, Site 50-10-02-04043, a canoe shed (halau). Site 04043 was first recorded, but not excavated, in the 1970s. Radiocarbon dating reported here suggests deposits did not begin accumulating until ca. cal AD 1700–1900, surprisingly late given its coastal location and previous dating of leeward Kohala sites. To help understand this we considered how the coastline has changed over time. We estimate, based on high-resolution airborne LiDAR bathometry, that this location was around 100m inland at the time people first arrived in the Hawaiian Islands. The subsidence of Hawai‘i Island slowly brought the coastline closer and it would have been around 10m from this location when deposits began accumulating. The contents of the midden are consistent with previous studies of subsistence in leeward Kohala.We attempted to improve on the specificity of the faunal inventory through ancient DNA but failed to recover intact DNA in fragmentary faunal bone samples. We note that reporting negative results is important for the judicious use of this technique. In sum, our results highlight the critical importance of a targeted, systematic study of early settlement—something that has never been done in the Hawaiian Islands—rather than relying on the type of salvage excavations described here.
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    EDXRF Analysis of Lithics from Lapakahi State Historical Park, Kohala District, Hawai‘i Island
    ( 2023-12-30) Ciccone, Danielle ; Johnson, Adam ; Lundblad, Steven ; Mills, Peter
    We used energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) to geochemically characterize legacy lithic collections from William Bonk’s 1969 Lapakahi excavations in the southern portions of Koai‘e Village, including volcanic glass, basalt debitage, abraders, and stone sinkers. A contemporary collection of a volcanic glass surface scatter in Lapakahi also improved our sample size, and expands on the lithic sourcing work for leeward Kohala regions immediately to the south. Significant findings include the abundance of volcanic glass from Pu‘uwa‘awa‘a in excess of previously published predictive models, and the absence of any adze material from the nearby Pololū adze quarry. Furthermore, lead (Pb) residue on abraders imported from a Mauna Loa source confirms the use of scoria abraders in the historical era.
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    Bottling Paradise: The Future of Glass Bottle Archaeology in Hawai‘i
    ( 2023-12-30) Alvarez, Anthony K. ; Pinsonneault, Max ; Avila, Daina Nicole
    As common-place consumables bearing the marks of datable production techniques and often durable labeling, glass bottles are a goldmine for any archaeologist equipped with the right analytical toolkit. By learning to decipher the age, sources, and uses of glass bottles, archaeologists not only gain a valuable tool for dating historic sites, they open a window into the trade networks and consumption patterns of the past, topics that are perennial favorites of the discipline. In analyzing glass bottle assemblages, certain aspects of a bottle’s life can be determined from close inspection of the bottle itself. These include: date of manufacture, place of manufacture, intended function, particular lip shape (i.e., bottle type), intended content, and place of bottling.
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    Terevaka Archaeological Outreach (TAO) 2022–2023 Field Report: Program Expansion
    ( 2023-12-30) Shepardson, Britton L.
    Since 2003, Terevaka Archaeological Outreach (TAO) has offered unforgettable educational opportunities regarding archaeology, traditional lifeways, technology, and sustainable development at no cost for Rapa Nui high school students. After 20 years of refining our pedagogy and implementation, 2022–2023 marked a year of rapid expansion for TAO. Within a 10-month period, TAO completed two projects on Rapa Nui, and also launched sister programs in the Sacred Valley of Peru and in Patagonia National Park of Chile.
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