Volume 67, 2015

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    Effects of processing method and dietary lysine levels on growth performance, feed conversion ratio and body composition of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella
    ( 2015) Gan, Lian ; Liu, Yong-Jian ; Tian, Li-Xia ; Yue, Yi-Rong ; Liu, Fu-Jia ; Yang, Hui-Jun ; Chen, Yong-Jun ; Liang, Gui-Yin
    Effects of feed processing method and lysine level on the growth performance of grass carp were evaluated in this study. 13 g kg-1, 15 g kg-1 and 17 g kg-1 lysine level of diet were prepared through (a) extrusion and (b) cold pelleting process, supplemented with crystalline lysine (L-lysine HCL). After 8 weeks of feeding experiment, the results showed that the feed processing method had no effect on growth and on the feed conversion rate of grass carps. Weight gain, protein and amino acids retention, feed efficiency of grass carp fed with the extruded and pelleted feeds were significantly improved by with lysine supplementation (P <0.05). Viscerasomatic index (VSI), hepatopancreasomatic index (HSI), intraperitoneal fat ratio (IPF), muscle fat content, whole body fat content, serum high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein of fish were significantly increased when fed extruded diets (P <0.05). This result suggests that extrusion can affect fat metabolism. VSI, HIS IPF, muscle fat content and whole body fat content of grass carp were significantly reduced with supplemented crystalline lysine (P <0.05). Lower serum Aspartate aminotransferase activity and glutamate dehydrogenase activity were observed when fish were fed with extruded diets (P <0.05).
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    Utilization of Mung Bean, Vigna radiata (Linnaeus) as a Novel Protein Source in Practical-Type Diets for Juvenile Milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal): Effects on Growth, Feed Efficiency, Body Composition, and Histology of Gut and Liver
    ( 2015) Apines-Amar, Mary Jane S. ; Coloso, Relicardo M. ; Amar, Ma. Novie G. ; Golez, Ma. Shirley M. ; Bunda, Marj Gem B. ; Jaspe, Cecilia J.
    A 15-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimum partial inclusion of mung bean protein in milkfish diet. Six isonitrogenous practical-type diets with mung bean included at 0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, 16%, and 20% of the diet equivalent to 0%, 3%, 7%, 10%, 13%, and 17% of the total dietary protein, respectively, were formulated. Milkfish with average body weight (ABW) of 8.5 ± 0.23g were distributed in eighteen tanks (6 treatments X 3 replications) with 10 fish each. The fish were fed the diets three times daily. Results showed that growth of milkfish was not adversely affected by the inclusion of mung bean protein at any dietary level. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were significantly improved by the inclusion of mung bean at 20% of the diet. Nutrient compositions of the fish carcass were similar in all diets. Furthermore, no detrimental effects attributable to mung bean inclusion were seen in terms of protein retention, hepatosomatic index (HSI), and liver and midgut histology of the fish. Overall, mung bean is a promising protein source for milkfish and can be included up to 20% of the diet contributing as much as 17% of the total dietary protein without detrimental effects on growth, feed performance, PER, protein retention, HSI, and liver and intestinal histology.
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    Effect of Total Fish Meal Replacement with Vegetal Protein Alone or Combined with Rendered Animal Protein on Growth Performance and Tissue Composition of European Catfish (Silurus glanis L.)
    ( 2015) Havasi, Máté ; Kumar, Shivendra ; Nagy, Zoltán ; Pál, László ; Beliczky, Gábor ; Bercsényi, Miklós ; Gál, Dénes
    A feeding trial was conducted for six weeks to determine the effect of the replacement of fishmeal (FM) either with vegetal protein (mainly soybean) and rendered animal protein combined or vegetal protein alone on growth and carcass composition of European catfish, Silurus glanis. One hundred and thirty five fish (average weight 70.90±5.10g ±SD) were randomly distributed into three treatments in triplicate. Fish were fed with either of three isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) and isocaloric (16.70 MJ/kg DE) experimental diets. The diets were: fish meal (FM) based diet, fish meal protein replaced with a combination of vegetal protein and rendered animal protein (AP), and fish meal replaced with vegetal protein only (SM). Weight gain (%), specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of FM diet fed groups were similar (P>0.05) with AP diet fed group being significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the SM group. Feed conversion ratio with FM diet was similar (P < 0.05) to that of the AP diet, and significantly lower than SM diet. The present experiment indicated that vegetal protein alone cannot replace total FM protein in the diet of Silurus glanis, however, vegetal protein and rendered animal protein combined, can replace total fish meal protein, with no detrimental effect on growth performance, feed utilization, and body composition.
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    Isolation, Identification, and Detection, of the Virulence Factor of Vibrio cholerae in Grass Carp
    ( 2015) Teng, Tao ; Liang, Liguo ; Xie, Jun
    In this study, we examined the mass mortality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) caused by Vibrio cholerae in Jiangsu Province. We evaluated the phenotypic, morphological, physiological, biochemical, and virulence factor characteristics as well as the drug sensitivity of the CY-1 strain isolated from the liver, spleen, and kidney, of dying grass carp. The 16S rRNA gene (GenBank accession number: KF386612) was amplified and compared with sequences deposited in GenBank. A phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the isolated pathogen was V. cholerae and that it was most closely related to V. cholerae (GenBank accession number: JN555611). Artificially infected grass carp that died exhibited the same disease symptoms as those of naturally infected fish. An amplified band in the corresponding 564-bp position was detected as the virulence factor, and it was the same as that of the V. cholerae virulence factor ctxA. Drug sensitivity tests showed that V. cholerae was resistant to penicillin, tobramycin, cotrimoxazole, and amoxicillin, and was highly sensitive to cefuroxime, amikacin, tetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. These could possibly be used in the treatment of this disease. The findings of this study can be used as a reference for disease control and health management in the cultivation of C. Idellus.
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    New rRNA primers for the detection of Vibrio anguillarum
    ( 2015) Avsever, Meriç Lütfi ; Tunalıgil, Serra ; Didinen, Behire Işıl ; Metin, Seçil
    In this work, 51 V. anguillarum isolates (42/51 of O1 serotype, 9/51 of O2) obtained from cultivated marine fish by Avsever and Ün (2015) were used. These isolates were confirmed with universal primers specific to amiB genes. They were also detected successfully at a rate of 100% with a new primer couple designed according to 16S ribosomal RNA sequence. The new primers were found to have a high sensitivity and specificity but were liable to give a cross-reaction with Vibrio ordalii.
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    Effects of Dietary Isoleucine Levels on the Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, and Serum Biochemical Indices of Juvenile Golden Pompano, Trachinotus ovatus
    ( 2015) Huang, Zhong ; Lin, Hei-Zhao ; , Peng, Jing-Shu ; Tan, Xiao-Hong ; Zhou, Wen-Chuan ; Zhou, Chuan-Peng $Lei, Mei-Hua
    A 56-day growth trial was conducted to determine the isoleucine requirement of juvenile Trachinotus ovatus. Six diets with different concentrations of L-isoleucine (13.2, 15.7, 18.2, 20.7, 23.2 and 25.7g/kg dry diet, defined as diet Ile-1, diet Ile-2, diet Ile-3, diet Ile-4, diet Ile-5 and diet Ile-6, respectively) were formulated to contain 430g/kg crude protein with fish meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, and pre-coated crystalline amino acids. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate treatments of 20 fish (initial body weight 6.36±0.03g) in seawater floating net cages. Results indicated that weight gain increased with increasing isoleucine concentrations up to 18.2g/kg, whereas diets containing higher isoleucine concentration reduced the growth performance significantly (P<0.05). The highest muscle protein content, protein efficiency ratio, body protein deposition, viscerasomatic index, hepatosomatic index, and lowest feed conversion ratio, serum AST activities were also found in 18.2g/kg dietary isoleucine treatment (P<0.05). The highest lipid content of whole fish was found in 15.7g/kg dietary isoleucine treatment (P<0.05). Survival rates in treatments Ile-5 and Ile-6 were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those in other treatments. Results of polynomial regression based on weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and body protein deposition indicated that the optimal dietary isoleucine requirement for Trachinotus ovatus reared in seawater floating netcages was 17.39-17.50g/kg isoleucine of dry diet, correspondingly 40.4440.70g/kg of dietary protein.
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    The Effect of Different Tempos of Music During Feeding, on Growth Performance, Chemical Body Composition, and Feed Utilization of Turbot (Psetta maeotica, Pallas 1814).
    ( 2015) Catli, Tuba ; Yildirim, Onder ; Turker, Ali
    The effects of different tempos of music on growth, body chemical composition and feeding parameters of turbot (Psetta maeotica, Pallas 1814) were investigated. Turbot (average weight 160.61±1.53 g) were reared in a circulating sea water system for 8 weeks with music playing for 5 hours at each feeding. The music treatments consisted of slow tempo music (adagio; metronome speed 66-76), medium tempo music (moderate; metronome speed 108-120), fast tempo music (allegro; metronome speed 120-168) and control group (no music). Results demonstated that the fast tempo music treatment (FTM, p<0.01) had a negative effect on fish growth, but when slow tempo music (STM) was transmitted, growth improved slightly. Best growth performance was observed when the fish were exposed to slow tempo music. The FTM group showed signs of stress and reduced feed intake. Music transmission significantly affected carcass fat content (p<0.05). No significant effect was observed on protein, ash or moisture content.
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    Effects of Trehalose, Bovine Serum Albumin, and Sucrose, on the Integrity of the Plasma Membrane of Pseudosciaena crocea Semen after Cryopreservation
    ( 2015) Cheng, Shun ; Sheng, Zhang ; Zhu, Jun-Quan ; Wu, Xiong-Fei
    Cryopreservation and the effect of additives on the plasma membrane stability, motility, enzyme activity, membrane lipid composition, and ultrastructural injury of sperm of Pseudosciaena crocea, were examined in this study. Results indicated that the addition of trehalose (TH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) provided significantly better results in the motility test compared to sucrose. Some BSA groups, showed significantly increased semen motility and effective enzyme activity. There were no significant differences between the cholesterol (CHO) composition for fresh sperm and cryopreserved sperm stored in 3 g/L BSA or 8.56 g/L TH+3 g/L BSA. Ultrastructural injury included damaged membrane, lost mitochondria, or broken flagella, whereas the majority of the freeze-thawed sperm remained morphologically normal. In conclusion, the addition of 3 g/L BSA and 8.56 g/L TH+3 g/L BSA significantly increased semen quality
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    Effect of the Substitution of Fish Oil with a Mixture of Plant-Based Oils in Diets of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) Fingerlings on Growth, Phosphorus and Nitrogen Excretion
    ( 2015) Reyes, Mirna Leandra Enríquez ; Velázquez, Esmeralda Analleli Ramírez ; Hernández, Luis Héctor Hernández ; Araiza, Mario Alfredo Fernández
    A feeding trial was performed to determine the effect of substituting fish oil with a 1:1 mixture of soybean and linseed oil on growth, phosphorus and nitrogen excretion, and lipid deposition of rainbow trout fingerlings. Diets with soy protein concentrate and soybean meal were prepared with 25, 50, and 75% substitution of fish oil with plant oils. Soy protein concentrate and soybean meal were used with fish oil at 100% in the control diet. Triplicate groups of 15 juveniles with an initial weight of 0.74 ± 0.05 g (mean ± standard error) were fed the experimental diets for 70 days. Growth performance, protein, and lipid digestibility, oxygen consumption, nitrogen, and phosphorus excretion, and lipid deposition (liver and muscle) were determined. The mixture of plant oils did not affect the growth performance of fingerlings. Apparent digestibility of lipids decreased as the fish oil in the diet decreased. A significant decrease of phosphorus excretion was observed as plant oils in the diets were increased. Lipid deposition was higher in liver unrelated to plant oil concentration in the diet. The results show that it is possible to use high quantities of plant ingredients in the diets without affecting the growth performance and lipid deposition, as well as significantly decreasing phosphorus excretion.
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    Ontogeny of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Immunoglobulin Type M Antibody Response
    ( 2015) Kuendee, Natthaporn ; Klaynongsruang, Sompong ; Bunyatratchata, Wandee ; Tengjaroenkul, Bundit ; Ngamcharoen, Kittipoj ; Daduang, Jureerut ; Ungarreevittaya, Piti ; Daduang, Sakda
    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Cichlidae) are cultured worldwide, however, the study of humoral immunity in these fish has been neglected, leading to mismanagement of prevention of common diseases by vaccination. In this study we purified and characterized the Nile tilapia immunoglobulin type M (IgM). In addition, we have described the production of a mouse polyclonal antibody for the investigation of the onset of antibody responses. After one-step purification using protein G sepharose beads, SDSPAGE, and mass fingerprint analysis we found that the heavy chain of Nile tilapia IgM was 70 kDa, whereas the light chain was 27 kDa. Western immunoblotting techniques using mouse anti-Nile tilapia IgM antibody, produced by intraperitoneal injection with purified Nile tilapia IgM for 3, periods with booster inoculations every 10 days, could effectively detect the onset of antibody responses in Nile tilapia sera at 42 days post-hatch.