Hawaiian Archaeology Volume 12

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    Signs of a Divine Reality: The Materiality of Bird Cook Stones (Pohaku 'Eho) from the Dry Interior Uplands and Mountainous Regions of the Island of Hawai'i
    ( 06/01/11 12:00 AM) McCoy, Patrick
    One of the most enigmatic material culture items used by native Hawaiians in the past are bird cook stones variously referred to in the literature as 'eho, pohaku 'eho or pohaku 'eho manu. The "type" specimens were collected in 1885-86 by J.S. Emerson on the island of Hawai'i. The Emerson Collection and other collections made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, as well as ethnographic accounts, indicate the use of both natural, unmodified pebbles and pecked, ground and/or polished stones resembling small pestles and phallic emblems. A review of the ethnographic literature and early collections reveals some of the problems in identifying bird cook stones and the probable reasons why they have not been more commonly recognized in archaeological sites. The salient characteristics of an assemblage of artifacts interpreted as bird cook stones from the Pu'u Kalepeamoa Site on Mauna Kea are described and briefly compared to selected assemblages of morphologically similar artifacts from sites in the Pohakuloa Training Area (PTA), that until recently were most often described as pestles. The formal properties of these objects, their archaeological contexts, and the term 'eho itself suggest that the manufactured variety of bird cook stones had symbolic meanings or uses not previously known, or at least not described in the ethnographic literature.
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    Contemporary Practice of Archaeology in Hawai'i
    ( 06/01/11 12:00 AM) Dye, Thomas S.
    Preface (by Windy McElroy and Sara Collins) The following commentary was written by Dr. Dye in 2007 for a colloquium at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. The piece could not be published in Hawaiian Archaeology until now, but it still has relevance today for the context it provides on the current state of archaeology in Hawai'i. Many of the challenges of 2007 have not been resolved, such as the curation issue, problems with the CRM industry, and the dysfunction of SHPD. Years after the events Dr. Dye describes, SHPD still faces serious issues and has now been deemed "at risk" by the National Park Service (NPS) after a comprehensive review. The SHPD has until 2012 to address corrective actions identified by NPS. Unfortunately, the office is still beset by many of the same problems Dr. Dye identified in 2007 so it is difficult to see how SHPD will meet the federal government's requirements in time. The change in the state administration in late 2010 brought a commitment to restore state government offices, including SHPD. It remains to be seen if the administration will follow its words with the meaningful action and support SHPD needs to recover.
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    Bottles, Abandonment, and Re-visitation in the Hansen's Disease Settlement at Kalawao, Moloka'i
    ( 06/01/11 12:00 AM) Flexner, James L.
    The concept of site abandonment is an important one for interpreting artifact assemblages from archaeological sites. Using bottle glass artifacts from the Hansen's disease settlement at Kalawao, this paper explores the relationship between historically known dates for abandonment of an area and archaeological evidence for continued visits to the area. Although most of Kalawao is considered abandoned by the beginning of the 20th century, glass bottles indicate that people continued to visit Kalawao, and that the old settlement continued to be aru important part of community social life even when no longer permanently inhabited. This oqservation has important implications for interpreting post­Contact site chronologies in Hawai'i, as artifacts in surface contexts may indicate temporary visits, rather than continued habitation of archaeological features. This kind of evidence can also provide useful insights into behaviors not otherwise documented in contexts of permanent habitation.
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    Floodwater Farming of Ritual Offerings at Kaunolu and Mamaki on Leeward Lana'i, Hawai'i
    ( 06/01/11 12:00 AM) Dixon, Boyd ; Major, Maurice
    Archaeological survey and mapping of the traditional Hawaiian village sites of Kaunolii and Mamaki on the leeward coast of Lana' i during 1991 revealed possible evidence of the controlled use of periodic floodwaters in two dryland farming feature complexes. Limited excavations at two of these locations in 1998, and the quantification of an optimal annual yield for various indigenous agricultural products, suggests these particular features were far from capable of sustaining the pre-Contact population predicted for each settlement, even given peak amounts of rainfall. Given the close proximity of these features to two temples or heiau at both sites, it appears likely that the crops produced here were grown primarily to supply the priests, or kahuna, and chiefs, or ali 'i, with agricultural offerings needed during ritual events which may have proliferated after both temples were enlarged and redesigned under the aegis of Maui polities by AD 1650. Agricultural intensification in this particular case could therefore be considered a direct response to increasing religious and socio-political
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    When Did the Polynesians Settle Hawai'i? A Review of 150 Years of Scholarly Inquiry and a Tentative Answer
    ( 06/01/11 12:00 AM) Kirch, Patrick V.
    The question of when Polynesians first discovered the Hawaiian Islands-the most remote archipelago in the world-has engaged scholars for two centuries. Abraham Fornander, Edward Handy, Te Rangi Hiroa, Kenneth Emory, and others proposed theories and projected dates of first settlement based on oral traditions, genealogies, and linguistic comparisons. With the advent of stratigraphic archaeology and radiocarbon dating, new models of Polynesian settlement emerged, seeming to push back the date of Polynesian settlement in Eastern Polynesia. Until recently, orthodox opinion put initial Polynesian discovery of Hawai'i between ca. AD 300-750. In the past two decades, significant advances in radiocarbon dating and the targeted re-dating of key Eastern Polynesian and Hawaiian sites has strongly supported a "short chronology" model of Eastern Polynesian settlement. It is suggested here that initial Polynesian discovery and colonization of the Hawaiian Islands occurred between approximately AD 1000 and 1200. The only habitation site in the archipelago which has been securely dated to this time frame is the 018 Bellows Beach site at Waimanalo, O'ahu Island.
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    Anatomy of an Unfinished Lo'I System: The Ku'ele West Complex in Wailau Valley, Moloka'i
    ( 06/01/11 12:00 AM) McElroy, Windy Keala ; Eminger, Steven
    Agricultural production has been a main focus of archaeological research in Hawai'i and elsewhere, although construction methods for agricultural features have not been widely examined. This research explores an irrigated agricultural system in Wailau Valley on the island of Moloka' i that is thought to have been abandoned before construction was completed. Dating to the 14th century AD, the system provides a unique opportunity to examine stages of construction of traditional agricultural features and provokes questions as to why the complex was abandoned while others in the valley were put into production.
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    Front Matter, Table of Contents, Sponsors, and Back Matter
    ( 06/01/11 12:00 AM)
    Front Matter, Table of Contents, Sponsors, and Back Matter