Hawaiian Archaeology Volume 01

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    Soil Chemistry and Agriculture: Analysis of Five Archaeological Sites on the Island of Hawai'i
    ( 06/01/84 12:00 AM) Clark, Jeffrey T ; Tamimi, Yusif N
    In 1981, the Bernice P. Bishop Museum conducted an extensive archaeological survey and excavations in the Waimea-Kawaihae region of the District of South Kohala, Hawai'i Island (Clark and Kirch 1983). A key research problem addressed during that project centered on the exploration of the nature and variability of prehistoric Hawaiian agricultural practices. It became important, therefore, to be able to identify agricultural soils. To this end, we undertook limited chemical analyses of soils from selected archaeological sites and associated control areas. These sites ranged from clearly identified agricultural fields to hypothesized farming areas. The results of these analyses, summarized in this paper, sugge~t a pattern of chemical differentiation between agricultural and non-agricultural areas.
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    The Mauna Kea Adz Quarry: Technological Analyses and Experimental Tests. (Dissertation Abstract).
    ( 06/01/84 12:00 AM) Cleghorn, Paul L.
    The purpose of this dissertation is to demonstrate the wealth of behavioral information that can be obtained from the study of Polynesian stone adz manufacturing residues. This is accomplished through a combined program of technological analyses and experimental tests. An exhaustive review of the literature on Polynesian adz studies reveals that little attention has been given to the technological aspects of adz manufacture, and the present study intends to fill this gap. The focal point of this research is debitage assemblages from the Mauna Kea Adz Quarry on the Island of Hawaii. At the Quarry, it is possible to observe the patterning of flakes, cores, and partially finished tools, from which it is possible to infer raw material procurement strategies and reduction sequences. The blank/preform and flake assemblages from four small shipping stations and the blank/preform collection from a large debitage pile form the sample from the Quarry. These assemblages are analyzed to determine manufacturing techniques and core reduction strcltegies, which result in postulating a manufacturing sequence. Combined with these technological analyses, a two-part experimental program was carried out. The aim of the first part is to characterize the physical properties of the material available at the Quarry, the results of which are utilized in predicting what types of material would be preferred. The aim of the second part is to make adz preforms by traditional methods, which provided a wealth of behavioral information on reduction strategies. The combined research results in presenting several behavioral propositions relating to craft specialization, organization of labor, differential skills, and production estimates. Finally, the present research raises several questions for further study.
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    Kaho'olawe Archaeology: An Overview.
    ( 06/01/84 12:00 AM) Barrera, William
    Since the outbreak of war in 1941, the Island of Kaho'olawe has been under the jurisdiction of the United States Navy and has been used for target practice and troop training
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    Marine Exploitation at South Point, Hawai'i Island: An Aspect of Adaptive Diversity in Hawaiian Prehistory.
    ( 06/01/84 12:00 AM) Goto, Akira
    Island ecosystems have several significant characteristics, such as relative isolation, limitation in size, limitation in or even absence of certain resources, limitation in organic diversity, etc. (Fosberg 1965). Therefore, man in the island ecosystem must cope with several stresses, among which food is the most substantial. Food resources in the Pacific are usually limited quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitatively, the amount of food is limited by land area; in other words, there is a clear carrying capacity in island ecosystems. Qualitatively, animal protein on islands is limited due to the general absence of mammals in the Pacific islands. Both quantitative and qualitative limitations in terrestrial food resources have led to an emphasis on exploitation of marine resources. Marine resources have been well preserved by traditional conservation mechanisms (Johaness 1978; 1981), and marine exploitation has worked to increase man's adaptability to the Pacific environment.
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    A Review of Archaeobotony and Paleoethnobotony in Hawaii
    ( 06/01/84 12:00 AM) Allen, Melinda S
    Archaeobotany has been defined by Ford (1979:299) as the study of plant residues derived from archaeological contexts. Palaeoethnobotany, as a field of inquiry, draws upon several types of archaeobotanical analyses. Wood, phytoliths, pollen, and other plant remains such as seeds, leaves, and tubers are examples of archaeobotanical materials. These remains can provide information of relevance to palaeoethnobotany, but may also contribute to studies of palaeoclimate, palaeobotany, etc. More than a listing of plants and their traditional uses, palaeoethnobotany is the study of past man-plant relationships, emphasizing the dynamics of those relationships through time.
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    Where Lohiau Ruled: Excavations at Ha'ena, Halele'a, Kaua'i.
    ( 06/01/84 12:00 AM) Griffin, P. Bion
    As Pele and Hi'iaka danced in human form before Lohi'au on the hula platform at Ha'ena (Note 1), gods and mortal Hawaiians alike could look at the cliffs--Na Pali--running down the coast beyond Kalalau, and at headland after headland, each marking another narrow valley as the wet of the north changed to the dry of the west. Glancing below and east, Lohi'au and his companions could see the blues, whites, and greens of Ha'ena itself, for Ha'ena was fronted by reef and the many blues of the Pacific, by the white coral sand of Ke'e beach, and the green of coastal vegetation, taro, and the cover of the mountainous cliffs immediately beyond (Pl. 1). Lohi'au, his ancestors, and his descendents have lived at Ha'ena since perhaps before A.D. 1000 until our own time. Indeed, today some people of Halele'a District count their people back to and beyond the rule of the island.
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    ( 06/01/84 12:00 AM) Kirch, P.V.
    In September, 1984, the Society for Hawaiian Archaeology will celebrate its fourth anniversary. An early aim of the Society' s members, expressed journal or newsletter which would serve as a vehicle for disseminating the r esults of research in Hawaiian archaeology . With the publication of this first issue of Hawaiian Archaeology, that aim has now been achieved.
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